Xeriscaping Guide: Thriving with Drought-Tolerant Plants

by John Krechting

Welcome to Sustainable Home Magazine’s Xeriscaping Guide! Are you interested in creating a stunning landscape that conserves water and requires minimal maintenance? Look no further than xeriscaping – a water-efficient landscaping technique that embraces native plants and sustainable gardening practices.

In this guide, we will explore what xeriscaping is, and its numerous benefits, and provide you with expert tips on how to implement xeriscaping principles in your garden. By the end, you’ll be equipped with the knowledge and inspiration to transform your outdoor space into an eco-friendly oasis. Let’s get started!

Key Takeaways:

  • Xeriscaping is a water-efficient landscaping technique that allows homeowners to have a beautiful and thriving landscape while conserving water.
  • By using drought-tolerant plants and sustainable gardening practices, xeriscaping reduces or eliminates the need for excessive watering and maintenance.
  • Benefits of xeriscaping include water savings, cost savings, time savings, and environmental protection.
  • Proper planning, soil testing, and choosing the right plants are crucial for a successful xeriscape design.
  • Mulching, proper irrigation techniques, and regular maintenance play essential roles in maintaining a thriving xeriscape.
landscape 10

What is Xeriscaping?

Xeriscaping is a sustainable gardening technique that aims to create water-efficient landscapes using drought-tolerant plants. This landscaping approach reduces or eliminates the need for additional watering beyond what naturally occurs in the climate, making it ideal for regions with limited water resources or areas prone to drought.

Unlike traditional landscaping, which often relies heavily on turfgrass and high water consumption, xeriscaping utilizes principles such as replacing grass with mulch, rocks, soil, and drought-resistant plants. By designing landscapes that require minimal irrigation, xeriscaping promotes water conservation and helps homeowners reduce their water bills.

The term “xeriscape” was coined in the 1980s by the Denver Water Department in response to water scarcity in the region. Since then, xeriscaping has gained popularity across the United States as homeowners recognize the benefits of water-efficient landscaping and the positive impact it has on the environment.

“Xeriscaping is not just about saving water, but also about creating sustainable and visually appealing gardens that thrive in water-scarce conditions.”

Implementing xeriscaping principles involves carefully selecting and designing landscapes that incorporate native and drought-tolerant plants. These plants have evolved to adapt to their local climate and require less water to thrive, making them well-suited for xeriscape gardens. By grouping plants with similar watering needs together, homeowners can create efficient irrigation zones that optimize water usage.

With xeriscaping, the goal is to create a low-water gardening approach that is both environmentally friendly and aesthetically pleasing. By reducing water consumption and maintenance requirements, xeriscaping allows homeowners to enjoy beautiful landscapes that are sustainable and sustainable gardening.”

xeriscape 2 1

Benefits of Xeriscaping

Xeriscaping is not only a sustainable gardening practice but also offers several benefits for your outdoor space and the environment. By implementing xeriscaping techniques, you can conserve water, reduce maintenance requirements, and create an eco-friendly landscape that promotes biodiversity. Here are some key advantages of xeriscaping:

1. Water Conservation

One of the primary benefits of xeriscaping is water savings. By incorporating native and drought-tolerant plants into your landscape, you can significantly reduce water usage. These plants have evolved to thrive in your local climate, requiring less irrigation compared to exotic or water-intensive varieties. As a result, xeriscaping helps conserve water resources and contributes to sustainable water management practices.

2. Cost Savings

When you embrace xeriscaping, you can enjoy long-term cost savings. By reducing the need for additional irrigation systems and minimizing water consumption, your water bills can significantly decrease over time. Moreover, xeriscaping typically requires less fertilizer, pesticides, and maintenance, resulting in additional savings. With its emphasis on low maintenance landscaping, xeriscaping proves to be a budget-friendly option for homeowners.

3. Time Savings

Xeriscaping offers time-saving benefits as well. Compared to traditional landscaping, xeriscaped gardens require less maintenance and upkeep. By choosing native plants that are adapted to your local climate, you can create a resilient landscape that requires minimal intervention. The reduced need for mowing, pruning, and fertilizing allows you to spend more time enjoying your garden rather than tending to it.

4. Environmental Protection

Xeriscaping is an eco-friendly gardening practice that promotes environmental protection. By eliminating or minimizing the use of toxic chemicals, such as pesticides and herbicides, you create a healthier environment for both humans and wildlife. In addition, xeriscaped gardens provide natural habitats for beneficial insects, birds, and other wildlife, contributing to overall biodiversity and ecological balance.

“Xeriscaping is not only about water conservation, it’s a holistic approach to landscaping that benefits both you and the environment.”


Embracing xeriscaping principles in your garden not only helps preserve natural resources but also allows you to create a visually appealing and sustainable outdoor space. From water conservation and cost savings to time efficiency and environmental protection, xeriscaping offers a range of benefits that make it an attractive option for homeowners.

Planning Your Xeriscape Design

When it comes to xeriscaping, proper planning is key to creating a beautiful and water-wise landscape. By considering various factors such as sunlight, drainage, and soil type, you can design a xeriscape that thrives with minimal water usage. Here are some important considerations to keep in mind:

Sunniness and Shadiness

Take note of the areas in your yard that receive direct sunlight and those that are shaded throughout the day. This information will help you select the right plants for each area based on their light requirements.

Drainage and Slopes

Assess the drainage patterns in your yard to determine areas that are prone to excess water buildup or poor drainage. Consider the slopes and contours of your landscape to ensure proper water flow and avoid erosion.

Soil Type

Understanding your soil type is crucial in xeriscape design. Different soil types have varying water-holding capacities and drainage properties. Conducting a soil test will provide insights into the composition and characteristics of your soil, allowing you to make informed decisions about plant selection and water management.


Create hydrozones within your landscape based on plants’ watering needs. Group plants with similar water requirements together, allowing for efficient irrigation practices. This approach ensures that each plant receives the appropriate amount of water, preventing water waste.

Native Plants

Research and select native plants that are well-suited to your region. Native plants are adapted to the local climate and often require less water, making them ideal for xeriscaping. Consider incorporating a variety of native plants to add visual interest and promote biodiversity.

By carefully planning your xeriscape design, taking into account factors such as sunlight, drainage, soil type, and plant selection, you can create a stunning and water-wise landscape that is both sustainable and low-maintenance.

audit 7

Testing Your Soil

When it comes to xeriscaping, understanding your soil’s characteristics is crucial to creating a successful and water-efficient garden. Testing your soil can provide valuable insights into its water retention capacity and nutrient content. Armed with this knowledge, you can determine the appropriate watering requirements for your plants and make informed decisions about soil improvements, if necessary.

Soil composition plays a significant role in water retention. Clay or silt soils tend to hold onto water more tightly due to their finer particles, while sandy soil drains more quickly. Conducting a simple water infiltration test can help you assess how quickly your soil absorbs and retains water. To perform the test, dig a hole that is 6 inches deep, fill it with water, and time how long it takes for the water to drain completely. This will give you an indication of your soil’s drainage capability.

Additionally, soil testing can provide insights into its nutrient content. By evaluating the levels of essential nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, you can ensure that your plants receive the appropriate nourishment. A soil test can be conducted using a DIY soil test kit or by sending a soil sample to a professional laboratory for analysis. The results will guide you in making informed decisions about soil amendments and fertilization.

Improving soil moisture retention is essential for xeriscaping. One effective method is to add organic matter such as compost or well-rotted manure to increase the soil’s water-holding capacity. Organic matter acts like a sponge, absorbing and retaining moisture for longer periods. It also enhances soil structure and promotes beneficial microbial activity.

“Soil testing is an essential step in xeriscaping as it provides valuable insights into water retention and nutrient content. Armed with this information, you can make informed decisions about watering requirements and soil improvements.”

– Sustainable Home Magazine

Soil TypeWater RetentionNutrient Content
ClayHigh water retention, slow drainageMay contain sufficient nutrients but prone to compaction
SiltGood water retention, moderate drainageMay contain some nutrients, but amendments may be necessary
SandyLow water retention, fast drainageMay require regular fertilization, lacking in nutrients
LoamOptimal water retention, balanced drainageRich in organic matter and nutrients, ideal for plant growth

Understanding your soil’s characteristics is key to implementing appropriate xeriscaping practices. By testing your soil, addressing water retention issues, and ensuring proper nutrient content, you can create an environment that fosters the growth of drought-tolerant plants and minimizes water waste.

landscape 21

Reducing or Eliminating Turfgrass

Turfgrass is a popular choice for many homeowners due to its lush green appearance. However, maintaining a turfgrass lawn requires a significant amount of water and regular maintenance. If you’re looking to conserve water and create a low-maintenance landscape, considering reducing or eliminating turfgrass from your outdoor space can be a wise choice.

Instead of a traditional turfgrass lawn, consider incorporating drought-tolerant native grasses into your landscape design. Native grasses are well-suited to your local climate and require less water compared to non-native species. They have deep root systems that can access water from lower soil layers, making them more resilient during dry periods.

When deciding whether to keep or remove turfgrass, consider the specific locations where it is needed. Areas that receive heavy foot traffic, such as play areas or pathways, may benefit from having turfgrass. However, for large expanses of turfgrass that are seldom used, it may be more practical to replace them with low-water alternatives.

Furthermore, it’s important to avoid planting grass in difficult-to-reach areas or areas that compete with other vegetation for water and sunlight. These areas can be challenging to maintain and may require excessive watering to keep the grass alive. Instead, opt for ground covers or native plants that are better adapted to the local conditions.

Benefits of Reducing or Eliminating Turfgrass

“By reducing or eliminating turfgrass, homeowners can conserve water, reduce maintenance efforts, and create a more environmentally friendly landscape.”

Reducing or eliminating turfgrass offers several benefits, including:

  • Water Conservation: Turfgrass is known to be a water-intensive plant that requires regular irrigation. By replacing it with native grasses or other low-water alternatives, you can significantly reduce your outdoor water consumption.
  • Low-Maintenance Landscaping: Traditional turfgrass lawns require regular mowing, watering, fertilizing, and weed control. By reducing or eliminating turfgrass, you can enjoy a more low-maintenance landscape that requires less time and effort to upkeep.
  • Biodiversity: Native grasses and alternative ground covers provide habitats for beneficial insects and wildlife. They support local ecosystems and contribute to overall biodiversity in your garden.
TurfgrassDrought-Tolerant Native Grasses
Requires regular wateringWater-efficient, requiring less irrigation
Frequent mowingLow-maintenance, requiring minimal mowing
Prone to pest and disease issuesNaturally resistant to local pests and diseases
Requires fertilizers and herbicidesReduced need for chemical inputs

By reducing or eliminating turfgrass and choosing drought-tolerant native grasses, you can create a water-wise and low-maintenance landscape that not only benefits the environment but also enhances the visual appeal of your outdoor space.

Choosing the Right Plants

Selecting the right plants is crucial when designing a xeriscape. To create a thriving and water-efficient garden, choose drought-tolerant, water-wise, and native plants that are well-suited to your local climate. Group plants with similar watering requirements together to optimize irrigation efficiency and conserve water. Additionally, ensure that the chosen plants have enough space to grow, considering their height and spread, to prevent interference with utilities and power lines.

When it comes to xeriscaping, native plants are a great choice. These plants have evolved to thrive in your region’s specific conditions, including rainfall patterns and temperature variations. By selecting native plants, you can create a landscape that naturally flourishes and requires minimal watering once established. These plants are well-adapted to the local environment and often require less maintenance compared to non-native species.

Moreover, incorporating a variety of plant species with different blooming seasons and textures can enhance the visual appeal of your xeriscape. Consider plants that offer colorful blooms, interesting foliage, or unique shapes. By carefully curating your plant selection, you can create a diverse and visually captivating landscape that reflects your style.

Benefits of Choosing Drought-Tolerant Native Plants

Choosing drought-tolerant native plants for your xeriscape offers multiple benefits:

  • Water Conservation: Native plants have evolved to survive with minimal water resources, reducing the need for excessive watering.
  • Low-Water Gardening: Native plants thrive in the local climate and require less irrigation, making them ideal for water-wise gardening practices.
  • Biodiversity: Native plants support local wildlife by providing food and habitat, promoting biodiversity within your garden.
  • Reduced Maintenance: Well-suited to the local environment, native plants often require less maintenance, such as pruning and fertilizing.

By carefully selecting drought-tolerant, water-efficient, and native plants, you can create a xeriscape that is not only beautiful and low-maintenance but also environmentally sustainable. Set yourself up for success by planning your plant selection to meet the needs of your region while adding diversity and visual interest to your landscape.

Spreading Mulch

To enhance the success of your xeriscape design, the strategic application of mulch is essential. Mulching not only enhances the aesthetic appeal of your landscape but also provides numerous benefits in moisture retention, weed suppression, erosion control, and temperature regulation.

Organic mulches, such as straw, pine needles, and wood chips, have proven to be highly effective in maintaining soil moisture levels, reducing the need for frequent watering. The mulch acts as a protective layer, reducing evaporation and preserving water within the root zone of your plants. This moisture retention capability is especially crucial in xeriscaping, as it contributes significantly to water conservation efforts.

Mulch also plays a vital role in weed suppression, minimizing the competition for water and nutrients among your desired plants. The layer of mulch acts as a barrier, preventing weed seeds from receiving the sunlight needed for germination. With fewer weeds to contend with, your xeriscape will require less maintenance, freeing up your time to enjoy your beautiful garden.

Erosion control is another important function of mulch in xeriscaping. The thick layer of organic mulch helps stabilize the soil, preventing erosion caused by heavy rain or wind. It acts as a protective blanket, ensuring that your precious topsoil remains intact and your plants’ root systems remain secure.

Furthermore, mulch serves as a natural insulator, protecting the soil from extreme temperature fluctuations. It keeps the soil cooler during hot summer months and warmer during cold winter periods. This temperature regulation helps create an optimal environment for plant growth and development, especially for drought-tolerant species in xeriscaping.

When applying mulch, it’s important to maintain a proper distance from the base of your plants. Placing mulch too close to their stems can lead to excessive moisture retention and root rot. Leave a gap of a few inches to allow air circulation and prevent potential damage to your plants.

“Mulching is a key component of xeriscaping, providing multiple benefits in moisture retention, weed suppression, erosion control, and temperature regulation.”

Benefits of Mulching in Xeriscaping:

  • Retains moisture in the soil, reducing the need for frequent watering
  • Suppresses weed growth, minimizing competition for water and nutrients
  • Controls erosion and protects the soil from heavy rain and wind
  • Regulates soil temperature, creating an optimal environment for plant growth

Common Types of Mulch:

StrawOrganic material made from dried stalks of grains, excellent for moisture retention and weed suppression
Pine NeedlesNeedles from pine trees, acidic in nature, suitable for acid-loving plants and effective in moisture retention
Wood ChipsMade from various types of wood, offers long-lasting weed suppression and moisture retention properties

Implementing mulching techniques in your xeriscape design will not only enhance the overall appearance of your landscape but also provide essential benefits in moisture retention, weed suppression, erosion control, and temperature regulation. Choose the appropriate type of mulch for your plant’s specific needs, and apply it strategically throughout your garden to maximize its effectiveness.

landscape 15

Proper Irrigation Techniques

In xeriscaping, proper irrigation is crucial to ensure the health and vitality of your drought-tolerant plants. By implementing water-wise gardening practices, you can minimize water waste and create a sustainable landscape. Here are some techniques to consider:

1. Drip Irrigation and Soaker Hoses

Using drip irrigation or soaker hoses is an efficient way to deliver water directly to the root zones of your plants. Unlike traditional sprinkler systems that can result in water loss through evaporation and runoff, drip irrigation allows for targeted and controlled watering, minimizing water waste.

2. Watering Time and Frequency

When it comes to watering your xeriscape garden, timing and frequency are important. Watering early in the morning allows the plants to absorb moisture before the heat of the day, reducing evaporation. Additionally, watering infrequently but deeply encourages deep root growth, making your plants more resilient to drought conditions.

3. Turfgrass Irrigation

If you have turfgrass in your landscape, it’s crucial to water it properly to conserve water. Instead of frequent shallow watering, which can promote shallow root growth and water waste, water your lawn deeply and less often. This helps the grass develop deep root systems, making it more resilient to drought and reducing water consumption.

4. Monitor and Adjust

Regularly monitor the moisture levels in your xeriscape garden to ensure optimal irrigation. Use a moisture meter or perform a touch test to gauge the soil’s moisture content. If the soil feels moist at a depth of 2-3 inches, it’s a good indication that you can delay watering. However, if it feels dry, it’s time to irrigate.

5. Mulching

Applying a layer of mulch around your plants helps retain moisture in the soil, reducing the need for frequent watering. Mulch also provides insulation, keeping the soil temperature more stable and preventing excessive evaporation. Additionally, it helps suppress weeds, reducing competition for water resources.

6. Rainwater Harvesting

Consider incorporating rainwater harvesting systems into your xeriscape design. Collecting and storing rainwater allows you to reuse this natural resource for irrigation purposes. It not only conserves water but also reduces your reliance on municipal water supplies.

By implementing these proper irrigation techniques, you can optimize water usage in your xeriscape garden, promote plant health, and create a sustainable and water-wise landscape.

landscape 12 1

Proper Maintenance of Your Xeriscape

While xeriscaping requires less maintenance than traditional landscaping, it still requires some care. By practicing good lawn and garden care habits and addressing pest and disease problems promptly, you can ensure your xeriscape remains healthy and vibrant. Here are some essential maintenance tasks to keep your low-water landscaping looking its best:

  1. Proper Mowing: Maintain a proper mowing height for your chosen plants and grasses. This promotes healthy growth and helps prevent weed competition. Adjust your mower’s cutting height according to the plant’s requirements.
  2. Pest and Disease Control: Regularly inspect your xeriscape for signs of pests or diseases. Promptly address any issues to prevent the spread and damage to your plants. Consider using organic pest control methods to maintain a sustainable gardening approach.
  3. Fertilization: Fertilize your xeriscape as needed, following the specific requirements of your plants. Use slow-release fertilizers to provide nutrients over an extended period, minimizing the need for frequent applications.
  4. Soil Aeration: Keep the soil in your xeriscape aerated to allow for better water penetration and root growth. Aerating can be done using a garden fork or a mechanical aerator, depending on the size of your landscape.

Regular maintenance will help your xeriscape thrive and remain sustainable over time. If you’re uncertain about any aspect of xeriscape maintenance, it’s always beneficial to consult with a professional landscape designer who specializes in low-water landscaping. They can provide expert advice based on your specific climate and plant selections.

If you’d like further inspiration for maintaining a healthy xeriscape, take a look at this stunning image showcasing a beautifully maintained low-water landscaping design:

landscape 10

Best Plants for Xeriscaping

When implementing xeriscaping principles, selecting the right plants is crucial for creating a sustainable and water-wise garden. Here are some excellent choices of drought-tolerant and native plants that thrive in xeriscapes:


Succulents, such as aloe vera and jade plants, are ideal for xeriscaping due to their ability to store water in their leaves. These resilient plants require minimal watering and can withstand dry conditions. Their unique shapes and vibrant colors add visual interest to your xeriscape.


Sedums are low-growing, drought-tolerant plants that come in various sizes and colors. They require little water and are excellent for ground cover or adding texture to rock gardens. Sedums are hardy plants that can survive in challenging environments, making them perfect for water-wise gardening.


Lavender is not only beloved for its fragrant blooms but also for its ability to thrive in hot and dry climates. This low-maintenance plant requires minimal watering and adds beauty and fragrance to any xeriscape. Lavender is also known for attracting beneficial pollinators, making it a valuable addition to any garden.

Olive Trees

Olive trees are native to Mediterranean regions and are well-suited for xeriscaping. These trees have adapted to survive in dry environments and have low water requirements. Their silvery foliage and graceful form make them an attractive focal point in your xeriscape design.

Selecting plants based on your local climate and soil conditions is crucial for ensuring their success in your xeriscape. Consider consulting with a local nursery or landscape professional for expert advice on the best plants for your specific area.

To showcase the diversity and characteristics of these recommended xeriscape plants, here is a table summarizing their key features:

PlantWater RequirementsSpecial Features
SucculentsLowDrought-tolerant, unique shapes and colors
SedumsLowFragrant blooms attracts pollinators
LavenderLowFragrant blooms attract pollinators
Olive TreesLowGraceful form, silvery foliage

By incorporating these well-suited plants into your xeriscape design, you can create a visually appealing and water-efficient garden that thrives even in drought conditions.

Final Thoughts

Xeriscaping is a game-changer for homeowners who want to create stunning outdoor landscapes while conserving water and embracing sustainability. By incorporating xeriscaping principles, such as selecting drought-tolerant plants and improving soil health, you can design a thriving garden that requires less water and maintenance.

With xeriscaping, you play a vital role in water conservation efforts. By choosing plants that can withstand drought conditions and reducing the need for excessive watering, you contribute significantly to preserving this precious resource. Additionally, xeriscaping promotes sustainable gardening practices by eliminating the use of harmful chemicals and fostering biodiversity in your yard.

Embracing xeriscaping practices not only benefits the environment but also offers you the opportunity to have an eco-friendly and visually appealing landscape. By incorporating native plants, implementing proper irrigation techniques, and spreading mulch, you create a low-maintenance oasis that enhances the beauty of your home.

So why wait? Start implementing xeriscaping principles in your garden today and join the movement towards a more sustainable and water-wise approach to landscaping. By doing so, you not only create a haven for yourself but also inspire others to make a positive impact on the planet through their landscaping choices.


What is xeriscaping?

Xeriscaping is a landscaping technique that reduces or eliminates the need for water beyond what naturally occurs in the climate. It uses drought-tolerant plants and principles such as replacing grass with mulch, rocks, soil, and drought-resistant plants.

What are the benefits of xeriscaping?

Xeriscaping offers numerous benefits, including water savings, cost savings, time savings, and environmental protection. By using native and drought-tolerant plants, water usage is significantly reduced, irrigation systems may not be needed, and toxic chemicals are eliminated. Xeriscaping also promotes biodiversity and provides natural habitats for insects and wildlife.

How do I plan a xeriscape design?

Planning is essential for a successful xeriscape design. Consider factors such as the sunniness, shadiness, drainage, and slopes of your yard. Know your soil type and create hydrozones based on watering needs. Research and choose plants that are native to your area and have similar watering requirements.

How do I test my soil for xeriscaping?

Testing your soil will help determine its water retention and nutrient content, which is essential in understanding the watering requirements for your plants and whether soil improvements are necessary. Clay or silt soils hold onto water more tightly, while sandy soil drains more quickly. Adding organic matter can improve moisture retention.

How can I reduce or eliminate turfgrass in xeriscaping?

Turfgrass requires a significant amount of water, so reducing or eliminating it can save water and maintenance efforts. Only keep turfgrass in areas where it is needed and choose drought-tolerant native grasses. Avoid planting grass in difficult-to-reach areas or areas that compete with other vegetation for water and sunlight.

What are some tips for choosing the right plants in xeriscaping?

Select drought-tolerant, water-efficient, and native plants that are adapted to your area. Group plants with similar watering requirements together and ensure they have enough space to grow. Consider the height and spread of the plants to avoid interference with utilities and power lines.

How do I spread mulch in xeriscaping?

Mulching is important in xeriscaping as it helps retain moisture, suppress weed growth, reduce erosion, and control temperature extremes. Use organic mulch such as straw, pine needles, and wood chips and avoid placing it too close to the base of plants to prevent damage.

What are some proper irrigation techniques in xeriscaping?

Use drip irrigation or soaker hoses to deliver water directly to the root zones, minimizing water waste. Consider watering early in the morning and watering infrequently but deeply to encourage deep root growth. For turfgrass, water deeply and less often.

How do I properly maintain a xeriscape garden?

While xeriscaping requires less maintenance than traditional landscaping, it still requires some care. Practice good lawn and garden care habits, address pest and disease problems promptly, and maintain proper mowing heights. Fertilize as needed and keep the soil aerated.

What are some examples of best plants for xeriscaping?

There is a wide range of drought-tolerant and native plants suitable for xeriscaping. Examples include succulents like aloe vera and jade plant, sedums, lavender, and olive trees. Select plants based on your local climate and soil conditions to ensure their success in your xeriscape.

Source Links

Related Posts

Leave a Comment

About Us

Sustainable Home magazine was started to balance the information between “Sustainable” and “eco-friendly”. Although both are used in the conservation movement. Sustainable means being able to bear both the cost and effort to live in harmony with nature and the planet.

Legal Information

Sustainable Home Magazine is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Sustainable Home Magazine at times also participates in affiliate programs with Clickbank, CJ, ShareASale, and various other sites. We are compensated for referring traffic and business to these companies. For more information click here Legal Information or use the links in the footer.

© 2015-2024 – All rights reserved. Designed by Atlas International Group